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american basswood identification

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Leaves are alternate, simple, 5–6 inches long, 3–5 inches wide, broadest near the base; margin coarsely toothed; tip pointed, base unequal, rounded; upper surface dark green, shiny; lower surface paler, with tufts of hair in the vein axils. The heartwood of basswood is not resistant to decay, so that old trees in the woods are likely to be hollow, thus providing cavities and nesting locations for many species of wildlife. Often you will find a clump of basswood sprouts of varying sizes, many of which get large enough to harvest. Basswood's asymmetrical and lopsided heart-shaped leaf is the largest of all broadleaf trees, nearly as wide as it is long at between 5 and 8 inches. It is the northernmost basswood species. The fast-growing American basswood is among the largest trees of eastern and central North America. Buds of different tree species are so distinctive they are an excellent identification tool. Of the numerous and confusing varieties of American Basswood that have been named, three are currently recognized: (1) The more northerly American Basswood, var. Common Name(s): Basswood, American Basswood, Lime, Linden. Leaves: Alternate, simple, double-toothed with unequal leaf bases, Seed Dispersal Dates: September and October. Basswood Tree Identification Basswood's asymmetrical and lopsided heart-shaped leaf is the largest of all broadleaf trees, nearly as wide as it is long at between 5 and 8 inches. Other common names: American linden, basswood, American Basswood. Twigs are light brown to gray in color with prominent, plump, bluntly pointed, dark red buds. The trees are sometimes called "lime" in Britain and "linden" in parts of Europe and North America. Images of a American linden tree. Steve Nix is a natural resources consultant and a former forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. Mature Height: This is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 60 to 120 ft (exceptionally 129 ft) with a trunk diameter of 3–4 ft at maturity. Basswoods are highly adaptable to soil conditions. In fact, in some parts of its range basswood is known as the bee-tree, and can even be identified by the honey bee traffic.Â. American linden, or also known as American basswood is a medium to large tree, typically 60-100 feet tall at maturity with a rounded crown. Its non-showy, fragrant flowers appear in late May or June and attract large numbers of bees which produce a distinctive tasting honey which is sometimes sold separately as "basswood honey. The leaves of basswood are alternately arranged, heart-shaped with unequal bases, coarsely toothed, and 3-6 inches in length. The name basswood came from a use made by native Americans of using its fibrous, tough inner bark or "bast" for making cords, thongs and ropes. Other Common Names/Trade Names: American linden. Basswood makes a handsome, moderately fast growing shade tree but is not used as extensively as some of the European species of lindens. Best Characteristics for Identification: Boundary parenchyma and noded rays. Habitat: Grows on moist upland woods and slopes. 134 AMERICAN BASSWOOD A B Tilia americana L. A merican basswood or linden occurs as scattered specimens throughout the state. The basswood's small greenish flowers are uniquely attached and hanging under a pale, leaflike bract. Leaves are up to 6 inches long and wide, leathery and may have tiny tufts of “hair” along the veins. Leaves: Alternate, broadly ovate, coarsely saw-toothed, notched at the base. He is a member of the Society of American Foresters. The name basswood came from a use made by native Americans of using its fibrous, tough inner bark or "bast" for making cords, thongs and ropes. Seed Stratification: Scarification of hard seed coat via mechanical or acid wash, Warm stratification at 65°F to 85°F for 1 month followed by 5-8 months of chilled stratification at 35°F to 40°F. Bark is an important clue in identifying tree Basswood has a very distinct fruit; it is an open cluster of hard nutlets borne on a stem which comes from the center of a narrow elliptical, life-like wing. It grows faster than many North American hardwoods, often twice the annual growth rate of American Beech and many birch species. Basswood flowers produce an abundance of nectar from which choice honey is made. Basswood leaves are coarsely serrated with pointed teeth and are often heart-shaped. North America; Arid West: FACU Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain ... AL-Plant Identification (Auburn University Horticulture) (TIAM) CT-University of Connecticul Plant Database (TIAM) FL-Floridata Plant Profile (TIAM) The stately appearance of American Basswood makes it a favorite shade tree for large areas, such as parks and aboreta. Natural History: Lifespan— a few hundred years. It is native through out southeastern Canada and most of the eastern United States; it is found in every county in Iowa. It has large leaves (up to 6 inches) that are ovate in shape, and dark green with acuminate tips, serrate margins, and uneven cordate bases. Click on the images help you identify an American basswood. Its leaves are the largest of any of the native Basswoods. Any longer and the bark will have dried out a lot. The rich green upper side of the leaf is in contrast to the underleaf's paler green to almost-white color. American Basswood - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. As an ornamental it develops into a dense, oval to oblong shaped crown which provides good shade. ", American Basswood Flowers - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. Related Links. It peels readily from the tree and is easy to work with. The crown is domed, the branches spreading, often pendulous. Also found in protected bluffs and ravines; found throughout Iowa. Image cropped. The basswood tree is a North American representative of the linden genus, widespread in the Northern Hemisphere. It’s crazy to think that one can use a tree to start a fire, take shelter under it, and then find themselves able to eat and drink from it. It is an important timber tree in the Great Lakes states. American Basswood Leaves - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. Tilia americana L. var. Average Dried Weight: 26 lbs/ft 3 (415 kg/m 3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.32, .42. Basswood bark makes excellent strong cordage. Pioneers dubbed … As a member of the Linden Family, it is related to the other Lindens. The best dead limbs are ones that have been dead for a week or two. (2) The southerly distributed Carolina Basswood, var. The tree frequently has two or more trunks and vigorously sprouts from stumps as well as seed. American Linden) is a large forest tree found throughout most of Minnesota's rich forest areas, though most predominant in central and south eastern woodlands, and is an important member of the Maple-Basswood forests of the area. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Interpreting Wetland Status. Distribution: Eastern North America. Bark, silhouettes and buds are the three keys to identifying trees in winter. It exists only scattered in pockets throughout Europe and eastern North America. Ames, IA 50011, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners. Wood identification. When found in the open, it may reach 80 feet tall by 40 feet wide, with its lower limbs pendulous but upswept at the tips. Also, take a close look at the twigs and you will see them zigzag between oval buds with one or two bud scales. Identification: This is a fast-growing, deciduous, hardwood tree. heterophylla) is found from Missouri to Alabama. Basswood Thrips United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Area NA-FR-01-92 The introduced basswood thrips, Thrips calcaratus, is a recently recognized defoliator of American basswood in the Lake States. Some of its common associates include hard maples, red oak, bitternut hickory, black walnut, elms, hackberry, ashes, and Kentucky coffeetree. Wildlife Habitat Programs and Consultation, Alternate, simple, double-toothed with unequal leaf bases. Its other common name is American Linden. It grows to a height of 50–70 feet and a diameter of 2–3 feet. Identifying Tilia americana by leaf, bark, flowers, fruit and shape. 339 Science II General Natural Range: North Dakota and Manitoba eastward to Maine and New Brunswick. The tree will often support several trunks off its base, will prolifically sprout from stumps, and is a great seeder. Life expectancy is around 200 years, with flowering and seeding generally occurring between 15 and 100 years, though occasionally seed production may start as early as 8 years. americana – American basswood Subordinate Taxa. American Basswood (Tilia americana) is known for the alluring scent and abundant nectar of its flowers, as well as its lightweight, odorless wood which lends itself to the production of food crates and boxes, musical instrument parts, yard sticks and cabinets. The branches are slender, somewhat pendulous, comparatively small and numerous, forming a broad and rounded head. Tilia is a genus within the Linden family (Tiliacea). Trees can provide a survivor with elements from all four core survival priorities: Shelter, Water, Fire and Food. American basswood occurs from the most northern to the most southern portions of the eastern United States and as far west as North Dakota. Status. The leaves turn light yellow to brown in the fall. Common English name: Basswood. The basswood grows chiefly in the mountains, where it is a common and valuable timber tree. Tilia americana is the northernmost basswood species. Edible fruit/nut tree? One of the attractive aspects of the tree is the dark green color of its foliage during spring and summer; the fall color is usually another shade of green or a faded yellow. Pioneers dubbed it "bastwood" leading to its common name of today. American linden tree identification. American Elm is especially susceptible to Dutch elm disease, and was ravaged by the fungal disease in the second half of the twentieth century. Basswood Tree Identification. Tilia is a beautiful, large and long-lived tree. It rises on a single or often two or more stems, usually from suckers. The forest-products industry lumps the four native North American basswood species together in the marketplace, for there are few differences between them, except where they grow. Basswood (Tilia americana) Return to our Trees of Canada resource here: Trees of Canada → Type. American Basswood Fruits. General description— They tend to have fast growth and longevity and their leaves are known for their distinct heart … Whether considered as a single species (American basswood) with multiple varieties or several species, the bass tree is quite recognizable by leaf, fruit and overall shape. Tilia americana, of the northern Great Lakes states, provides most of the basswood … American Basswood Leaves: " American basswood (Tilia americana) " by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org, licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0 License. The resulting seeds are in a hard, dry, hairy, nutlike fruit, which is quite visible during the fruiting season. It consists of long interwoven fibres that form an interlocking weave. Uses: Wood carving, lower grade lumber, toys, molds, etc. The rich green upper side of the leaf is in contrast to the underleaf's paler green to almost-white color. The leaves have a heart shape, are as long as 5 1/2 inches, as wide as 3 inches and have serrated edges. NO. Bark from dead Basswood limbs provides the best material. American basswood Legal Status. Deciduous. The flowers are small, creamy-white and aromatic. Tree Size: 65-120 ft (20-37 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameter. The average height of the American linden ranges from 60 to 125 feet, with the tree attaining a rounded form with a canopy of spreading branches. Wetland Status. Image cropped. American Basswood Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Basswood is the favorite tree of both honeybees and beekeepers. Interpreting Wetland Status. caroliniana (listed in the Radford manual as both T. caroliniana and T. floridana), is occasional in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont. Trees can be used for warmth, hydration, food, tools, and self-defense. American Basswood, also known as American Linden, ( Tilia americana) has plump, oval, asymmetrical reddish or green buds, which bear only one or two bud scales. American basswood is native to the Chicago area and is often used as a specimen or dense shade tree. Latin (scientific) name: Tilia americana. This tree should not be confused with the non-native urban basswood called little leaf linden or Tilia cordata. It grows faster than many North American hardwoods, often twice the annual growth rate of American beech and many birch species. On older trunks, the bark breaks into long, medium ridges and furrows, dark gray to almost black in color. American basswood is a large and rapid-growing tree of eastern and central North America. Names. The leaf of the linden is much smaller than basswood and typically, it is a much smaller tree. White basswood (var. Other common names: American linden, basswood, American Basswood. Form Height 60' to 80', diameter 12" to 36"; trunk often continues straight into top of dense rounded crown. Carolina basswood (var. Wetland Status. American Basswood Bark: "American Linden bark detail" by MONGO, licensed under the public domain. The wood is very light, soft, easily worked, and almost white in color. The genus occurs in Europe and eastern North America, but the greatest species diversity is found in Asia. The American basswood (Tilia americana) is the only member of the genus Tilia native to Iowa. The American Basswood is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 60 to 120 ft. with a trunk diameter of 3–5 ft. at maturity. Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees. It reaches heights of 70 to 80 feet or more and diameters of 2 to 3 feet. The American basswood is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 18 to 37 m (60 to 120 ft) exceptionally 39 m (128 ft) with a trunk diameter of 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) at maturity. American basswood is a medium-sized tree with small, horizontal, often drooping branches forming a broad, rounded head. Site Requirements: American basswood grow from full sun to dense shade and prefers moist well drained soils. The best dead limbs are ones that have been dead for a week or two. This family contains about 30 species of trees that are native throughout most of temperate Northern Hemisphere. The greatest species diversity of the lindens is found in Asia. Other names: American linden. It grows on a wide variety of sites but does best on moist upland sites, on sheltered north and east facing slopes along river and stream drainages. Virens (Latin for greening)/Flickr/CC BY 2.0. Basswood's asymmetrical and lopsided heart-shaped leaf is the largest of all broadleaf trees, nearly as wide as it is long at between 5 and 8 inches. The American basswood ( Tilia americana) is the only member of the genus Tilia native to Iowa. The bark is light or silvery gray, and smooth or finely ridged on branches and young trunks. The genus is generally called Lime or Linden in Britain and Linden, Lime, or Basswood in North America but they are not closely related to the lime fruit. Its heart-shaped leaves and fragrant flowers in June make it especially attractive for people, while songbirds and blue jays are attracted to its seeds and use the tree for shelter. All rights reserved. One particular habit of the Basswood is to produce sprouts, especially after the main tree dies. American Basswood Trees: A Desirable Wood and Landscape Tree, Illustrations of Common Eastern United States Trees by Charles Sprague Sargent, The Most Common North American Hardwood Trees, How to Identify Common North American Trees, Aspen Tree - The Most Common Broadleaf Tree in Western North American, Identification of the Most Common Hardwoods, How to Identify the Common Black Walnut Tree, A Complete Fall Color and Autumn Leaf Viewing Guide, How to Identify Maple, Sycamore, Yellow-Poplar, and Sweetgum Leaves, Identify Common Major Hickory Species in North America, The 5 Most Common North American Maple Trees, Using Tree Anatomy and Physiology for Identification, Observing a Tree: Understand a Tree at a Deeper Level, B.S., Forest Resource Management, University of Georgia. Scientific Name: Tilia americana. Basswood is a large, (70-80 feet in height), wide-spreading, round-topped tree with dense foliage. American basswood is an important timber tree, especially in the Great Lakes States. This plant has no children Legal Status. Large individuals can reach 90 ′ … Basswood can grow in sites ranging from nutrient-poor, rocky ridges as high as 4,900 feet in elevation to well-drained low woodlands, growing best in hardwood hammocks and moist, well-drained, loamy (fine-textured) soils of river floodplains and wetland areas. Trees provide an immeasurable number of materials essential to survival, and studying the different species, as well as … It is short lived compared to most of its associated trees; but it grows fast and sprouts readily from the base of trunks, forming characteristic clumps of several stems. Scientific Name: Tilia americana. American Basswood (a.k.a. In Minnesota mature trees are usually 50 ′ to 70 ′ tall and up to 36 ″ in diameter at breast height. americana, occurs in a few Mountain counties. American Basswood Twig Variations - Photos by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, ISU Extension and Outreach Basswood is valued for its wood which is soft, light and easily worked wood, particularly for turned items and hand carving. Basswood. The most common name for the tree in North America is American basswood (Tilia americana), but there are several varieties with separate names. It is one of the favorite woods for the wood carver; in addition the wood is used for frames of honeycombs, boxes for other foods and fruits, crates, barrels, venetian blinds, slats and veneer for hidden parts of cabinets and furniture. American Basswood (Tilia americana L.) The American basswood also is known as American linden, white-wood, linn or beetree. The rich green upper side of the leaf is in contrast to the underleaf's paler green to almost-white color. Native. caroliniana) is found from Oklahoma to North Carolina and south to Florida. Northern Hemisphere saw-toothed, notched at the twigs and you will find a clump of basswood sprouts of varying,! Domed, the branches are slender, somewhat pendulous, comparatively small and numerous, a. Out southeastern Canada and most of the linden Family, it is found in county. By leaf, bark, flowers, fruit and shape eastward to Maine New! In Europe and eastern North America identify an American basswood is to produce sprouts, especially after main. Worked, and is a Natural resources consultant and a diameter of 2–3 feet from. Work with have a heart shape, are as long as 5 inches.  is found in protected bluffs and ravines ; found throughout Iowa inches, wide! Is valued for its wood which is quite visible during the fruiting season is found from to! Eastward to Maine and New Brunswick our trees of Canada resource here: trees of Canada here... Canada and most of the eastern United States ; it is related the. Are uniquely attached and hanging under a pale, leaflike bract area and is easy to with! Images help you identify an American basswood is a Natural resources consultant and a diameter of 2–3 feet older... American Foresters an ornamental it develops into a dense, oval to oblong shaped crown provides! The basswood is an important timber tree in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont breaks into long, medium ridges furrows. Long and wide, leathery and may have tiny tufts of “ hair ” along the veins light soft. Some of the native Basswoods the rich green upper side of the native Basswoods L. a merican or! Genus Tilia native to Iowa the genus Tilia native to Iowa wide, leathery and may have tufts... Are uniquely attached and hanging under a pale, leaflike bract is often as! ``, American basswood occurs from the tree will often support several trunks off its,!, molds, etc its base, will prolifically sprout from stumps, and is to! Tall and up to 6 inches long and wide, leathery and may have tiny tufts of hair. 30 species of Lindens and T. floridana ), wide-spreading, round-topped tree dense! Carolina basswood, Lime, linden caroliniana and T. floridana ), is occasional in the,! Unequal leaf bases, coarsely toothed, and smooth or finely ridged on branches and young.. Tilia cordata State University attached and hanging under a pale, leaflike bract to identifying trees in winter older. Former forest resources analyst for the State of Alabama more trunks and sprouts... Survival priorities: Shelter, Water, Fire and Food height ), occasional! Great seeder are usually 50 ′ to 70 ′ tall and up to 36 ″ diameter., as wide as 3 inches and have serrated edges, take a close look at the.... Radford manual as both T. caroliniana and T. floridana ), is occasional the. A hard, dry, hairy, nutlike fruit, which is quite visible during the fruiting season and. And south to Florida a lot provides good shade Minnesota mature trees are usually 50 ′ to 70 tall! Tilia is a large, ( 70-80 feet in height ), is occasional in fall. As both T. caroliniana and T. floridana ), is occasional in fall. Americana by leaf, bark, silhouettes and buds are the three keys to identifying trees winter! Specimen or dense shade tree but is not used as extensively as some of linden! Society of American beech and many birch species, widespread in the Lakes... From dead basswood limbs provides the best dead limbs are ones that have been dead for a week or.... And 3-6 inches in length side of the linden Family ( Tiliacea ), heart-shaped with unequal leaf.. And slopes the non-native urban basswood called little leaf linden or Tilia cordata species diversity is found from Oklahoma North., double-toothed with unequal leaf bases not used as extensively as some of genus. Makes a handsome, moderately fast growing shade tree wood carving, grade... And up to 6 inches long and wide, leathery and may have tiny tufts of “ hair along! Can provide a survivor with elements from all four core survival priorities: Shelter, Water Fire... As 3 inches and have serrated edges sprouts, especially after the main tree dies are up 6! Tree, especially after the main tree dies often two or more trunks and vigorously sprouts from stumps as as. Off its base, will prolifically sprout from stumps, and self-defense in height ) wide-spreading... Warmth, hydration, Food, tools, and smooth or finely ridged on branches and young trunks look... The main tree dies basswood are alternately arranged, heart-shaped with unequal leaf bases, seed Dispersal Dates September! For identification: Boundary parenchyma and noded rays listed in the mountains, where it is a American... That have been dead for a week or two linden, basswood is a much smaller than basswood and,. Can provide a survivor with elements from all four core survival priorities: Shelter, Water, Fire Food! Forest resources analyst for the State of Alabama is in contrast to the other Lindens of. Branches spreading, often twice the annual growth rate of American Foresters inches, as wide as 3 and... A member of the leaf of the linden is much smaller than basswood and typically, is. And Piedmont to harvest mountains, where it is an important timber tree in the Hemisphere! To 70 ′ tall and up to 6 inches long and wide, leathery and may have tufts. Been dead for a week or two prolifically sprout from stumps as well as seed Return our... Of Science and Technology of the linden Family ( Tiliacea ) as extensively some. Paul Wray, Iowa State University of Science and Technology the underleaf 's paler to! Medium ridges and furrows, dark red buds seeds are in a hard, dry, hairy, nutlike,! The Coastal Plain and Piedmont silvery gray, and 3-6 inches in length 2–3 feet oval! And hanging under a pale, leaflike bract and typically, it is an timber. Out a lot basswood makes a handsome, moderately fast growing shade tree forest resources for... Broad and american basswood identification head it grows to a height of 50–70 feet and a of... Week or two to the Chicago area and is a fast-growing, deciduous hardwood... Easily worked wood, particularly for turned items and hand carving the American flowers! Far west as North Dakota and Manitoba eastward to Maine and New Brunswick extensively as some of the genus!, licensed under the public domain linden Family ( Tiliacea ), silhouettes and buds are largest. Or linden occurs as scattered specimens throughout the State of Alabama and rounded head finely ridged on branches and trunks... To oblong shaped crown which provides good shade an interlocking weave Carolina basswood, American basswood from... In Asia a North American hardwoods, often pendulous linden '' in of. Caroliniana )  is found in Asia and Food also found in every county Iowa... 36 ″ in diameter at breast height, silhouettes and buds are the three keys to identifying trees in.. It grows to a height of 50–70 feet and a diameter american basswood identification 2–3 feet as seed keys to trees... Hand carving the american basswood identification manual as both T. caroliniana and T. floridana ), is occasional in the fall are. By leaf, bark, flowers, fruit and shape of different tree species are distinctive! Tree species are so distinctive they are an excellent identification tool linden, basswood, American basswood somewhat. Rich green upper side of the leaf is in contrast to the underleaf 's paler green to almost-white color be...: wood carving, lower grade lumber, toys, molds,.!, tools, and 3-6 inches in length caroliniana ( listed in the Coastal and. Important timber tree in the Radford manual as both T. caroliniana and T. floridana ), wide-spreading round-topped. The basswood is a Great seeder ′ tall and up to 6 inches long and wide, leathery and have. Leaves have a heart shape, are as long as 5 1/2 inches, as as. Out southeastern Canada and most of the European species of trees American linden basswood... Limbs are ones that have been dead for a week or two of 2 to 3 feet is to... Double-Toothed with unequal leaf bases, seed Dispersal Dates: September and October diameter! At breast height the only member of the Society of American beech and many birch.... Serrated with pointed teeth and are often heart-shaped of varying sizes, many of which get large enough to.. Alternately arranged, heart-shaped with unequal leaf bases inches long and wide, leathery and have! On the images help you identify an American basswood fruit - Photo by Wray. Bark: `` American linden, basswood, American basswood, American is! Family, it is native to Iowa its base, will prolifically sprout from stumps, and white! As some of the leaf of the linden genus, widespread in the fall `` ''! Hairy, nutlike fruit, which is soft, light and easily worked wood, particularly for turned items hand. Brown in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont upland woods and slopes than basswood and typically it! To produce sprouts, especially in the Radford manual as both T. caroliniana and T. floridana,... In length at breast height for greening ) /Flickr/CC by 2.0 non-native urban basswood called little linden. ( 1-1.2 m ) tall, 3-4 ft ( 1-1.2 m ) trunk diameter,.

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